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Tag - kratom
Mitragyna speciosa (commonly known as kratom also ketum) is a tropical evergreen tree in the coffee family native to Southeast Asia. M. speciosa is indigenous to Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, and Papua New Guinea, where it has been used in traditional medicine since at least the 19th century. Kratom has opioid properties and some stimulant-like effects.
As of 2018, little is known of kratom’s worth or safety as a therapeutic agent, since research into its use has been of poor quality. In February 2018, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) stated that there is no evidence kratom is safe or effective for treating any condition. Some people take it for managing chronic pain, for treating opioid withdrawal symptoms, or – more recently – for recreational purposes. Onset of effects typically begins within 5 to 10 minutes and lasts 2 to 5 hours.
Common minor side effects may include nausea, vomiting, and constipation. More severe side effects may include respiratory depression (decreased breathing), seizure, addiction, and psychosis.Other side effects may include high heart rate and blood pressure, trouble sleeping, and, rarely, liver toxicity. When use is stopped, withdrawal symptoms may occur. Deaths have occurred with kratom both by itself and mixed with other substances. Between 2011 and 2017, 44 kratom-related deaths occurred, with one involving kratom alone. Nine kratom-related deaths occurred in Sweden in 2011 and 2012, all involving a mixture of kratom with other opioids.
As of 2018, there is growing international concern about a possible threat to public health from kratom use. In some jurisdictions, its sale and importation have been restricted, and several public health authorities have raised alerts. Kratom is a controlled substance in 16 countries, and in 2014, the FDA banned imports and manufacturing of kratom as a dietary supplement. Sometimes, the finished product is mixed into cocktails with other psychoactive drugs, such as caffeine and codeine.