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Tag - kratom

Mitragyna speciosa (commonly known as kratom[2] also ketum) is a tropical evergreen tree in the coffee family native to Southeast Asia. M. speciosa is indigenous to Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, and Papua New Guinea,[3] where it has been used in traditional medicine since at least the 19th century.[4] Kratom has opioid properties and some stimulant-like effects.[5][6][7]

As of 2018, little is known of kratom’s worth or safety as a therapeutic agent, since research into its use has been of poor quality.[8][9] In February 2018, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) stated that there is no evidence kratom is safe or effective for treating any condition.[6] Some people take it for managing chronic pain, for treating opioid withdrawal symptoms, or – more recently – for recreational purposes.[3][9] Onset of effects typically begins within 5 to 10 minutes and lasts 2 to 5 hours.[3]

Common minor side effects may include nausea, vomiting, and constipation.[3] More severe side effects may include respiratory depression (decreased breathing), seizure, addiction, and psychosis.[3][6][10][11]Other side effects may include high heart rate and blood pressure, trouble sleeping, and, rarely, liver toxicity.[3][12][13] When use is stopped, withdrawal symptoms may occur.[7][9] Deaths have occurred with kratom both by itself and mixed with other substances.[6][14] Between 2011 and 2017, 44 kratom-related deaths occurred, with one involving kratom alone.[6] Nine kratom-related deaths occurred in Sweden in 2011 and 2012, all involving a mixture of kratom with other opioids.[14]

As of 2018, there is growing international concern about a possible threat to public health from kratom use.[6][9][15] In some jurisdictions, its sale and importation have been restricted, and several public health authorities have raised alerts.[9][15][16] Kratom is a controlled substance in 16 countries,[6] and in 2014, the FDA banned imports and manufacturing of kratom as a dietary supplement.[17] Sometimes, the finished product is mixed into cocktails with other psychoactive drugs, such as caffeine and codeine.[7][18]

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